LCCs using GDSs and Codeshares. A study on the increasing complexity of the LCC business model

The first low-cost carriers (LCCs) took an easy approach: They made the product ‘flight’ available to the most price-sensitive customers by following Porter’s generic strategy of cost leadership. But in order to continue to grow and operate profitably in a saturated market, many budget airlines have perceptibly changed their strategies by increasing complexity over the last few years…

Building a competitive advantage through PM
The Importance and Consequences of Ancillary Services to the Airline Industry